How many years has it taken from the 1G era to the 5G era? Where will the future communication direction go?

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How many years has it taken from the 1G era to the 5G era? Where will the future communication direction go?

The development of mobile communication technology has maintained the speed of the 10-year generation. From a global perspective, it took 40 years from 1G to 5G.

1G: The first generation of mobile communication technology is analog communication technology. The characteristic of this era is that there is no international standard. Each country is fighting on its own. It is an era of white flowers. Various technologies include AMPS, CDPD, C- Netz, NMT, TACS, etc.

2G: The second generation of mobile communication technology is a digital communication technology. Europe learned the lessons of the 1G era, unified the standards, launched GSM, and rapid global deployment made the 2G era known as the "GSM era". European communications manufacturing enterprises, including Nokia, Ericsson, Alcatel and Siemens, became the winners at that time. In the 2G era, Qualcomm of the United States introduced the CDMA system, but in terms of global deployment, it is far inferior to GSM.

There is also a unique country in the 2G era, which is Japan's own standard PDC and PHS. PHS was later introduced into China and was deployed by Telecom and Netcom at that time.

3G: The third generation mobile communication technology. The biggest difference between 3G and 2G is that it has strengthened its support for data services. 3G has four international standards, including TD-SCDMA in China, WCDMA in Europe, CDMA2000 1x EVDO in Qualcomm in the United States, and Wimax(IEEE 802.16e) later launched by IEEE in the United States. However, Wimax finally died due to boycott by China and Europe and its own technical defects.

4G: The fourth generation of mobile communication technology. Compared with 3G, 4G can be said to be a complete new technology. Due to 3GPP's core idea of "de-high throughput", 4G adopts the technology that completely avoids Qualcomm patents.

4G international standards include LTE-A, and Wimax follow-up evolution of IEEE 802.16m, but the latter has not been deployed.

LTE is divided into two branches, namely FDD-LTE and TD-LTE. TD-LTE is the main branch of China. However, in terms of technology, FDD-LTE and TD-LTE have a large number of overlapping technologies, and the degree of patent overlap is also very high.

5G: The fifth generation of mobile communication technology. At present, we are talking about 5GNR under 3GPP. The standard has now reached R15 version, and the rest of URLLC and mMTC have not been completed. The current 5G network basically only supports the eMBB (enhanced mobile broadband) part.

However, it is obvious that IEEE is also very difficult to give up the fat meat of mobile communication, and it is very likely to launch its own 5G standard technology near 2020. IEEE has never stopped its coveting of mobile communication.

The development of mobile communication technology in China.

The 1G era was in China. In 1987, Guangdong took the lead in establishing a 900M analog mobile base station and introduced the mobile phone, marking China's entry into the era of mobile communication.

2G Era: The first GSM network was opened in Jiaxing, Zhejiang in 1993, marking China's entry into the era of digital telephony.

3G era: On January 7, 2009, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology officially issued three 3G licenses, namely China Mobile's TD-SCDMA license, China Unicom's WCDMA license, and China Telecom's CDMA2000 license, marking China's formal entry into the 3G era.

4G era: On December 4, 2013, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology officially issued TD-LTE licenses to China's three major operators. From this day on, China officially entered the 4G era.

The 5G Era:?????

Since Chinese operators do not have any 5G trial commercial and commercial licenses, it cannot be said that China has entered the 5G era for the time being.

Where will the field of mobile communications go in the future? This concept is relatively large, and it can only be simply said.

Each generation of mobile communication technology solves some communication problems.

The 1G era solves the problem of mobility. From the emergence of mobile phones, individual users can solve communication problems without sticking to fixed phones, but the capacity of analog technology is relatively small;

2G era is the transition from analog communication to digital communication, mainly to solve the problem of system capacity;

The 3G era introduced data communication support, and gradually introduced the support of broadband and multimedia services. In the 3G era, there is a dispute between "broadband mobile communication" and "broadband mobile communication". The former is the three major 3G standards (TD-SCDMA, WCDMA, CDMA2000), and the latter is Wimax.

The third generation mobile communication technology was first proposed by ITU in 1985. Its initial name was FPLMTS (Future Public Land Mobile Communication System). Later, due to the emergence of 3G main technology around 2000 and the supported frequency around 2000Mhz, it was changed to its current name (IMT-2000) in 1996.

The objectives of third generation mobile communication technology include:

Mobility: enables global roaming. Users can roam throughout the system, even globally, and can obtain quality-guaranteed services at different rates and in different motion states;Business richness: can provide a variety of business support. 3G system requirements can provide voice, variable rate data, video communication services, especially multimedia services. (However, from a global perspective, 3G video calling services have not been developed.)Mobile Internet: Can adapt to a variety of environments. It can integrate PSTN, ISDN, cordless system, ground mobile communication system, satellite communication and other systems to provide seamless coverage.Sufficient capacity, strong user management capabilities, high security performance and quality of service.The reason for the initial emergence of the fourth-generation mobile communication technology is largely due to the fact that 3GPP, in order to get rid of Qualcomm's haze, includes a new OFDMA-based air interface and a new network structure.

Compared with 3G, 4G is mainly a substantial increase in system capacity, and at the same time, the cellular communication system completely gets rid of CS (circuit domain switching). At the same time, the spectrum utilization rate of 4G is improved, the time delay is significantly reduced, and the speed of network support is greatly improved.

Compared with 4G, 5G is actually further improved in terms of capacity, single-user rate, edge speed, spectrum utilization, number of terminal connections, and delay.

As far as 5G is concerned, it is still based on the land mobile communication network, and the network is also based on the coverage of the base station. In some areas where the geographical location is not suitable for the construction of the base station, the problem of signal coverage cannot be solved.

According to the vision of some experts in the communications industry, satellite communications will be introduced to 6G, allowing satellite communications to become a coverage supplement for these areas, so that the wireless signal coverage problem in deserts, mountains, grasslands, oceans and other areas can be solved, and even the mobile signal coverage problem of underwater communications can be solved.

As far as 6G is concerned, there is still no very clear direction and goal. To a large extent, the research on 6G by countries and laboratories all over the world is still a bet in advance. The specific projects are also preliminary research and development. There is still a lot of uncertainty about what the future 6G is and what it can solve.